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Open Government Data (OGD) Platform for Connecting People, Enhancing Transparency and for Effective Policy Making: The Case of data.gov.in*

CASE STUDY, E-COMMERCE
ET Cases - GSMC, 18 Pages
AUTHOR(S) : Ravi Ramakrishnan, Research Scholar, Amity University and Dr. Loveleen Gaur, Asst. Professor, Amity University

Case Preview

Open Government Data (OGD) Platform for Connecting People, Enhancing Transparency and for Effective Policy Making: The Case of data.gov.in

 

“Government data is one of the most valuable assets…however when the data is unused its value is zero.”

-- Oleg Petrov, Senior Program Officer, World Bank

 

India is the seventh largest country by area, the second most populous country and the world’s biggest democracy. Like any other country the Indian Government departments monitor the country’ socioeconomic growth and implement social policies and road map for infrastructure development, natural resource conservation, urbanization and basic health care services. This is done at the Union Government level, State Government level and the Legislature and Judiciary along with a number of autonomous bodies and private players. The broad sectors which are covered include Coal and Mines, Communication and Information Technology, Defences, Education and Training, Agriculture and Cooperatives, Animal husbandry and fishing, Art and Culture, Chemical and Fertilizers, Commerce and Industry, Employment and Labour, Energy and Power, Environment and Natural resources, Finance Banking and Insurance, Food and Public Distribution, Forestry and Wildlife, Governance and Administration, Health and Family welfare, Home Affairs and National Security, Housing and Urban Development, Information and Broadcasting, International Affairs, Law and Justice, People and Organizations, Petroleum Oil and Natural Gas, Rural Development and Panchayati Raj, Science Technology and Research, Social Justice and Empowerment, Tourism, Transport and Infrastructure and finally Youth Affairs and Sports.

Open Data Government Initiative

The portal launched as www.data.gov.in is built on an Open Source module called Drupal and has four modules:

• Data Management System (DMS): The module facilitates publishing of datasets and applications by authorised users from Ministries/Departments/Organisations
• Content Management System (CMS): This module helps update or create content and functionalities for Data Portal India
• ...........

Rationale for this Platform

Corruption in India is a major issue that slows down its economy and has a much wider implication. A study by Transparency International in 2005 highlighted that more than 62% of Indians had self-experience of bribing or using influence to get jobs done in public offices successfully. In its study conducted in 2008, Transparency International reports slightly improved this figure to 40% of Indians had first-hand experience of paying bribes or using a contact to get a job done in public office............

The Journey

Open Government Data (OGD) in India evolved over many years with the basic building block being the adoption of computers from 1975 with the creation of the National Informatics Centre (NIC), which encouraged people from moving away to paperless systems and automation. There was a RTI (Right to Information Act) passed in 2005 empowering citizens to demand and seek information on any government department functioning..............

Benefits of Open Data Platform and Global Cases

Open Data is an extremely valuable resource and information that be mined for the benefit of Citizens and all stakeholders in the countries progress. The accuracy and authenticity of this data is unchallenged and the magnitude of data collected is of a very large scale, which cannot be compared with any individual or private organizations data collection efforts. Government data is public data by law and should be available to others for use...............

Objectives of the NDSAP

The Indian Government in its NDSAP Gazette has identified the following objectives:

• Adherence to Principal 10 of the UN declaration on Environment and Development stating that each individual will have access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities and opportunity to participate in decision-making. This will be facilitated by the states
• ...........

Highlights: www.data.gov.in

The data.gov.in web portal platform (“data.gov.in”) is a highly interactive, excellent user experience site with the colourful theme showing the intent of the India Government to share data for general use and encourage participative collaboration platforms to reuse the data for analytics..........

Usage

The current usage statistics shows as on October 2015:

• 17937 resources
• 3748 catalogs
• 98 government departments
• ..........

Policy Information

This section has a soft link to the Open Data Government Policy NDSAP, Open Data Implementation Guidelines ..................

Quick Links

This section covers blogs, references, terms of use, newsletters, contact information and a section on the most accessed data including Catalog, Sectors,Events, App Galleries and Metrics............

Understanding the Datasets: www.data.gov.in

Motor Transport

This dataset provides over a period of many years data relating to transport parameters i.e., Number of Registered Motor Vehicles, Road Accidents in India, Buses Owned by the Public and Private Sector, Physical and Financial Performance of State Road Transport Undertakings [SRTUs], Revenue Realised from Road Transport..........

Ministry of Finance

Every banking company, financial institution and intermediary shall furnish to FIU-IND information of all suspicious transactions whether or not made in cash. (Anti Money Laundering Scheme) (Exhibit II)..........

National Statistics

Ever married women are persons who have been married at least once in their lives although their current marital status may not be “married”. This data set covers information relating to the same (Exhibit III)..........

...................

Analysis

There are a number of Visualisations and Mobile Applications, which have been developed and published using the open datasets, some of which are mentioned below (Exhibit I).

• Average Number of Trains Run Daily from 2000-01 to 2013-14: For instance, the average number of passenger trains run daily by the Indian Railways in the year 2000-01 was 8520. The average number of goods trains run daily by the Indian Railways in the year 2000-01 was 5802. The average number of passenger trains run daily by the Indian Railways in the year 2013-14 was 12961. It recorded a growth of 1137 trains (9.62%) as compared to the year 2010-11. The average number of goods trains run daily by the Indian Railways in the year 2013-14 was 8637
•................

Correlating Data Sets – Education and Earnings

The below section shows dependent datasets which can be analysed statistically to arrive at a cause-effect relationship (Exhibit VI, Exhibit VII and Exhibit VIII). Developing the skills and knowledge of the labor force is regarded as a key strategy for promoting national economic growth.............

Understanding the reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

IMR is the primary indicator a countries health and the Government of India has tried to address this during the entire planning years as also included by UN as one of its Millennium development goals. IMR has shown as per the below data set a decreasing trend. Infant mortality rate has declined by 70% from 139 in 1972 to 42 in 2012...............

Exhibits

Exhibit I: Motor Transport Dataset

Exhibit II: Ministry of Finance Dataset

Exhibit III: National Statistics Dataset

Exhibit IV: Environment Dataset

Exhibit V: Agriculture Dataset

Exhibit VI: Gross Enrolment Rate

Exhibit VII: GER vs Poverty Line (in %)

Exhibit VIII: GER vs MPCE

Exhibit IX: Data Visualisations

Exhibit X: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) in India

Exhibit XI: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) State-wise in India

Exhibit XII: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Literacy Rate

Exhibit XIII: Home Page of the data.gov.in Platform and View of the Data Sets

Exhibit XIV: Data Informative

Teaching Note Preview

Open Government Data (OGD) Platform for Connecting People, Enhancing Transparency and for Effective Policy Making: The Case of data.gov.in

 

Synopsis

Open Data is a buzzword today world over and the Indian Government has focused on a big way to implement e-governance across to provide excellent online citizen services be it passport to UDID to bank account, Social Security and Provident Funds and mass insurance. Today citizens no longer have to wait endlessly and work on paper-based forms as more and more services are being digitised. Another big initiative though unknown to many is the launch of a data portal “data.gov.in” which aims to bring all government data on a publicly accessible platform for use by citizens bringing more transparency.

The Government of India initiative to launch Open Government Data Platform (OGD) launched in 2012 is a huge collection of government data made publically available as open source. It is a platform developed in joint collaboration by the Government of India and US Government and is used by Ministries and Departments to publish datasets, documents, tools and applications collected by them.

The OGD platform has over 16102 datasets and has been very successful in bringing real time information to the citizens across areas of government functioning from Ministry of Home Affairs, Finance, Tourism, Atomic Energy, Space, Earth Sciences, Mines, Communication and Information Technology, Corporate Affairs and many others.

The case study is a critical analysis of the need , objective and the success behind the Open Data Government Platform data.gov.in, it covers the background and also lists some cases globally of how government data can be used for citizen welfare. It also has some illustrative datasets and the analytics already deployed by people using these datasets. The datasets will be useful in further investigative research using statistical tools............

Expected Learning Outcomes

The key objectives of teaching this case study is to first show the use of Open Data and highlight its role as a repository of wealth, which can be used for numerous activities benefitting right from Government Policy makers to normal citizens to business houses. Once the student is able to appreciate the need and availability of the Indian government data, he will further be able to co-relate new uses cases for these data and suggest quantitative measures and operations, which can be performed on this data. At the same ideation and innovative use, cases of data will result from a understanding of the vision behind this platform.

Case Positioning and Setting

This case study can be used in the field of IT/Quantitative Statistics/Entrepreneurial Management/Public Administration to derive insight and foresight from the data and try to collate multiple datasets to arrive at a cause-effect relation between factors, which may today be treated as independent variables pending such a cause analysis.

Assignment Questions

A. Public Administration

  • • What are the benefits other than the ones listed in the case study for such an open data platform, explain giving reference to your daily interaction with government agencies?
  • • Explain the roadmap adopted by India towards bringing an Open Data platform and critically examine the validity of this roadmap.
  • • ..................................

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Abstract

In 2012, the Government of India launched the Open Government Data Platform (OGD) making a huge collection of government data publically available as open source. It is a platform developed in joint collaboration by the Government of India and the US Government and is used by Ministries and Departments to publish datasets, documents, tools and applications collected by them.

The OGD platform has over 16102 datasets and has been very successful in bringing real time information to the citizens across areas of government functioning from Ministry of Home Affairs, Finance, Tourism, Atomic Energy, Space, Earth Sciences, Mines, Communication and Information Technology. Corporate Affairs and many others. With focus on 'Smart Cities' and 'Digital India' huge data is expected to be generated ,it becomes necessary to see that the data is used for citizen benefits. With this aim the OGD launched a number of successful events and awards like 'Best Solution for Social Good using Open Government Data', '#OpenDataApps Challenge' and CMA Hackathon - 'Code for Urban Governance' to encourage individual techies and corporate participation. With a visitor count increase from 1 million in 2012 to 54 million in 2014 the platform has met with resounding success and acceptability among the citizens.

The portal provides data as diverse as Stray Cattle and Dogs State Wise (Livestock Census) to economic information on State Level Consumer Price Index to core technical data like State-wise Socio Economic Indicators. The dataset also shows the number of downloads which have taken place so far and provides data in usable formats like comma separated files or excel spread sheet or xml files hence enabling the user to use it for further analysis. Filtration possibility exists on frequency of data updating which can vary from daily to decadal, jurisdiction ranging from each State to all India and finally on keywords.

Data is also provided in the form of RSS and API, which can be used for further integration to third party content providers to publish relevant data on an on-going basis. This case study will identify the growth in number and types of datasets available/published and the metrics/ applications/tools developed by citizens across these data measures and the potential benefits derived by the policy makers using the ODG platform.

It will further enable a critical analysis of the National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy (NDSAP), which aims to provide open access to data generated by the Government of India and assess to what extent the OGD portal, has achieved these objectives.



Pedagogical Objectives

  • To explain the Open Data Platform launched specifically to the Indian Context
  • To appreciate data reliability privacy issues in country building and government – citizen collaboration and feedback for development use

Case Positioning and Setting

The case study can be used in understanding the efforts behind the Open Data platform from Strategic Management perspective including Information availability, transparency, collaboration, participation and records management.


* GSMC 2016, IIM Raipur

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- Abstract
- Case Study
- Teaching Note (**ONLY for Academicians)
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