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EIA of Buildings: is it Worthy?*

ET Cases - FLAME, 7 Pages
AUTHOR(S) : Tarun Sahoo, Barendu Seth, Pritam Mohapatra, Satyam Palai - Student, Abhijat Arun Abhyankar, Associate Professor, NICMAR, Pune

Case Preview

EIA of Buildings: is it Worthy?

Great improvement has been made by mankind in all spheres of life from the beginning of civilization. The human society has changed its lifestyle, rate of urbanization has increased and development in infrastructure and industrialization has led to environmental pollution and deterioration. The haphazard growth and absence of ecological concern in the planning and implementation of the projects generally becomes the cause of degradation of the environment which resulted in several spillover costs in the growth and development. In 1972 Stockholm Conference, for the first time, the need for protection of the environment and its preservation from more deterioration was treated at global level [1].

Several major federal legislations are being characterized from last 20 years in which the major areas focused are control of water and air pollution, solid and liquid waste management, resource protection and soil and ground water improvement. Among them the most significant legislation is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 which was effective from 1st January, 1970 in United States of America (USA). It has been referred as the document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges for the environment..............

Evolution of EIA

In India, the EIA of projects was started in 1976-77 when the Planning Commission intimated the Department of Science and Technology to examine the river-valley projects from an environmental point of view. This was subsequently extended to cover the projects which required the approval of the Public Investment Board. Until 1994, EC was required only for the mega projects which were mostly government undertakings and hence were cleared by the government authorities without any third-party review process. Also there was no legislative support for this and no sort of record keeping was done..........

Stages of EIA

In India as per the EIA Notification, 2006 there are four stages for EC process. These are screening, scoping, public consultation and appraisal. Screening is done only for category ‘B’ projects in which the SEAC will determine if the proposed project requires further impact assessment studies in order to grant EC. Scoping as per the recent amendments to the original notification refers to the process by which EAC for category ‘A’ projects and SEAC for category ‘B1’ projects determine detailed Terms of Reference (TOR) providing all environmental concerns for the preparation of the EIA report...........

Case Study

Case I: Aditya Infracon (P) Ltd.

The company declared that the built-up area of their project in Jasola, New Delhi-110025 is of 19,991 sq. meters. So, as per the EIA Notification 2006 they don’t need EC from MoEF. They also stated that the water requirement will be fulfilled from two sources i.e. 110 Kiloliters per Day (KLD) from Municipal Corporation of Delhi and rest 120 KLD from ground extraction and the waste water generation would be 80 KLD........

Case II: MGF Developers Ltd.

The developers had approached to build 2 malls in the name of City Square Mall at plot number 7 and plot number 8, Shivaji place, Rajouri garden, Delhi-110027. The developer was sought to apply for EC by the Delhi Pollution Control Committee as two adjacent malls were constructed by the same unit. The application filed by the unit showed two different plots i.e. plot no. 7 and 8 through the same authorized person but different companies..............

Case III: Janta Land Promoters Ltd.

In this case the proponent had proposed a plan for development of a township on 120 acres land which included plots, group housing, schools, dispensary, community center and commercial area for around 16,000 people. The project was covered under EIA Notification 1994 amendment of 2004. So, the project was submitted to MoEF for EC..............


With increase in urban population and building density there is a significant strain on environment and EIA provides a comprehensive study on the likely impacts and its mitigations. This study provides a detailed insight to the history and the current form of EIA of buildings...........

Assignment Questions

I. Does the EIA increase project cost and time significantly?
II. Is EIA diluted in the present form?
III. ...............


Exhibit I: Process of EIA of Buildings

Exhibit II: Advantages and Disadvantages of EIA of Buildings

Teaching Note Preview

EIA of Buildings: is it Worthy?



The environment is threatened severely by many problems, some of which are caused by the activities of Construction Projects. The global concern to address environmental degradation caused by various developmental actions (construction projects inclusive) is the basis for calls to assess environmental impacts of building construction projects in India. The growth of Indian Real Estate sector has been enormous over the past decade and it is expected to reach $180 billion by 2020. With this growth trends, protecting the Environment is the need of the hour. The study therefore suggests that in order to reduce environmental degradation, building construction stakeholders must adopt Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) document and other regulations relevant for environmental protection. Also, all environmental regulatory agencies and sensitization organizations should continuously sensitize the building construction public on requisite environmental management practice and sanction erring agents. EIA guidelines were made mandatory from 1994 onwards to this sector. In 2006, buildings with built up area more than 20,000 sq. meters, categorized as B1 projects, came under the ambit of EIA. This study focuses on the effectiveness of EIA Notifications governing the Real Estate sector of India by highlighting few case studies.....................

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Product code: STG-2-0040, STG-2-0040A


The growth of Indian Real Estate sector has been enormous over the past decade and it is expected to reach $180 billion by 2020. With such growth trends, protecting the Environment is the need of the hour. For this purpose, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) guidelines were introduced in 1994 and amendments were made accordingly. Buildings with built up area more than 20,000 sq. meters, which are entitled as category B1 projects, came under the ambit of EIA. This case includes different stages of EIA, its assessments and various government agencies supervising the process and discusses advantages and disadvantages of EIA process.

Pedagogical Objectives

  • This case is expected to give an understanding of the existing EIA Notifications
  • To highlight and address the various loopholes or flaws in the current EIA process

Case Positioning and Setting
This case can be used for teaching courses like Real Estate Management, Environmental Law, Public Policy and Environment Management


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